Bakun, Benguet Indigenous People’s History, Knowledge Systems, Culture, Problems, Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan


EDITOR’S NOTE

Working with the people of Bakun to come up with a document such as this has been a rewarding experience, though at times one would feel insignificant amid the magnitude of what should be included in an ADSDPP.

The end-product leaves much to be desired, that’s for sure, but to keep adding to it and refining it is much like going to the end of the horizon.  No matter how far you go, the end just recedes to the distance.

This ADSDPP is a continuation of what was begun, and just a transition as the people of Bakun, and those that assist them, explore their horizon.

The material written was mostly taken from numerous workshops with community people.  Their sharing was the basis of most statements in this ADSDPP, though there were some we lifted from documents (and footnoted as such).  The wealth of information that the participants in the workshop have shared have not all been included, and we apologize for that.

We also note that while the material is from workshop participants, it is entirely possible that they have gathered their knowledge from other sources that might be missed in the footnotes.  Should this have happened, we hope to convey that it was not the intention at all.  Certainly, future editions of this document must acknowledge sources that we have missed in this one.

Nevertheless, we hope that the material as written is appreciated as the Bakun people’s output, and the editor hopes that the way it is written is coherent, relevant and informative.

Gary A. Pekas

March 2004

***********

The link to the file:

Bakun, Benguet Indigenous People’s History, Knowledge Systems, Culture, Problems, Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan

Table of contents may be seen below.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1
A. Early Settlers 1
1. The Myth of the Tellay 2
2. Succeeding Settlers 3
B. Origins of Names of Places 4
C. Our Early History 5
D. 1930s 5
E. World War II 10
F. 1940s and 1950s 11
G. 1960s 14
H. 1970s 18
I. 1980s 20
J. 1990s to 2003 22
II. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES (IKSP) 24
A. RESIDENCES AND OTHER STRUCTURES 25
1. Types of Traditional Houses of the Kankanaey-Bago People 25
a. Kinaong 26
b. Inalteb or kinlingan 26
c. Allaw 26
d. Apa 27
e. Binangian 27
f. Agamang 27
2. Traditional Rituals Associated with Building Construction 27
a. Boton 28
b. Petad 28
c. Saad 28
d. Leting 28
e. Padang 29
f. Seg – ak 29
g. Segep 29
h. Lawit 29
i. Allad 30
3. Current Practices 30
B. FOREST AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 31
1. Belief Systems Associated With Forests 31
2. Management Systems 32
a. Communal Ownership of the Forests 33
b. The Muyong and its Uses 33
i. Watershed 34
ii. Fuel Source 34
iii. Source of Timber and Other Building Materials 36
iv. Medicine 36
v. Nutrition 36
vi. Grazing Areas 37
vii. Animal and Bird Sanctuary 37
c. Bebe-an 37
d. Watershed or Tong-og 37
e. Swidden Farming 38
f. Bine – as 40
g. Hunting Ground or Paganupan. 40
h. Practices of Catching Game. 40
3. Other Protection Mechanisms of Forests and Watersheds 41
C. LAND use, OWNERSHIP and management 42
1. Concept of Common Property and Worldviews on Land 42
2. Rice Farming 43
3. Soil Conservation and Erosion Control 44
D. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 45
1. Belief Systems Associated with Water Systems 45
2. Irrigation systems as Communal Property 45
3. Rituals to Ward off pests and destruction 46
E. MINERAL RESOURCE USE, MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 46
1. Belief Systems Associated with Minerals 46
2. Mining Practices 47
3. Ownership and Sharing of Benefits 48
4. Taboos 49
5. Mine Management 49
6. Hand tools Used in Placer Mining 49
F. THE TONGTONG SYSTEM OF JUSTICE 50
III. ANCESTRAL DOMAIN PROFILE 53
A. The People 53
1. Clothing 54
2. Social Organization 55
a. Dispersed Settlements, the pulok 55
3. Religion 56
4. Gender Roles, the youth. 60
5. Bakun Organizations and Institutions 61
B. Decision Making and Justice System 65
1. Demography 67
2. Education 72
3. Health 75
C. THE ECONOMY 78
1. Traditional Agriculture 78
2. Commercial Farming 82
3. Market Information 90
4. Small-scale mining 91
5. Other Sources of Livelihood 91
6. Income 92
7. Credit Facilities 92
8. Employment and Unemployment 93
D. THE DOMAIN 94
1. Location 94
2. Access 94
3. Topography 95
4. Resources within the Domain 104
a. Forests and Watersheds 104
b. Timber Species 105
c. Floral Undergrowth 107
d. Medicinal Plants in the Domain 108
e. Animal Species 110
f. Avian Species 111
5. Actual Land Use 112
6. Water Resources 115
a. River Systems 115
b. Aquatic Species in the Domain 116
IV. Development Needs 117
A. Environmental Problems 117
1. Forest Denudation 117
a. Indiscriminate Cutting of Trees 117
i. Lumber for Sale 118
ii. Need to Strengthen Traditional Values 118
iii. Need to Provide Sources of Livelihood 119
b. Expansion of Vegetable Farms 119
i. Limited Agricultural Lands 119
ii. Need to Provide Sources of Livelihood 120
c. Forest Fires 120
d. Effects of Forest Denudation 120
i. Soil Erosion 121
ii. Lack of Water 121
iii. Diminishing Habitat 121
2. Unsafe Fishing Practices 121
3. Improper Disposal of Mine Waste 122
4. Lack of Waste Disposal System 122
5. Lack of Policies on Environmental Protection 123
6. Lack of Participation in Development Planning 124
7. Lack of Land Use Plan 124
B. Problems Affecting Self-Reliance and sustainability 125
1. Lack of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities 126
2. Dependence on Cash Crops 126
3. Erosion of Positive Traditional Values and Community Mutual Help Systems 127
4. Misinterpretation of Christian Values 127
5. The Bias of the Educational System 128
6. Economic Individualism 129
C. Problems Affecting Economic Development 130
1. Lack of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities 130
2. Other Problems 131
a. Incidence of Social Ills 131
V. THE ANCESTRAL DOMAIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION PLAN 132
A. Vision 133
B. Mission 133
C. Goals and Objectives 133
1. On the Environment 133
2. On Self-Reliance and Sustainability 134
3. On the Economy 134
4. On Social Ills 135
D. Strategies 135
1. Information and Education Campaigns 135
2. Empowerment 135
3. Fund Sourcing 136
4. ADSDPP, Program and Project Time Frames 136
5. Organization 136
6. Revisions of the ADSDPP 136
7. Policy Statements 137
a. Sharing of Responsibilities and Benefits 137
b. Resource Management Principles 138
c. Ancestral Domain Management Concept 142
d. Communal Forests and Watersheds as Protected Zones 142
e. Policies On Cultural Landmarks, Scenic Places And Special Use Areas 143
f. Mineral Resource Development Policies 144
g. Policies on Water Resources 145
h. Policies on Research and Documentation in the Domain 146
i. Intellectual Property Rights 147
j. Institutional Development 149
E. PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS 151
1. Environment and Natural Resources Program 151
a. Statement of the Problem 151
b. Reforestation Project 151
i. Objective. 151
ii. Project  Activities 151
c. Bantay Saguday Project 153
i. Objective 153
ii. Project Activities 154
d. Natural Forests Management Project 154
i. Project Description 154
ii. Objective 155
iii. Activities 155
e. Muyong Forest Management Project 156
i. Project Description 156
ii. Objective 157
iii. Activities 157
f. Habitat Management Project 158
i. Project Description 158
ii. Objective 159
iii. Activities 159
2. Land Tenure Program 159
a. Project Description 159
b. Objectives 160
c. Activities 160
3. Economic Development Program 160
a. Program Description 160
b. Statement of the Problem 161
c. Program Objectives 161
d. Program Strategies 162
i. Facilitation of Information, Education and Training Activities 162
ii. Encouragement of Entrepreneurship and Local Investment 163
e. Skills and Operations Training Project 164
i. Project Description 164
ii. Activities 164
f. Commercial Crop Diversification and Technology Enhancement Project 167
i. Project Description 167
ii. Objectives 168
iii. Activities 169
g. Nem-a Enhancement Project 172
i. Project Description 172
ii. Objectives 172
iii. Activities 173
h. Coffee Marketing Project 173
i. Project Description 173
ii. Objectives 174
iii. Activities 174
4. Socio-Cultural Program 175
a. Program Description and Statement of the Problem 175
b. Program Objectives 176
c. Program Activities 176
d. Functional Literacy Project 176
i. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 176
ii. Objective 176
iii. Activities 177
e. Promotion of Culture Project 178
i. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 178
ii. Objective 178
iii. Activities. 178
f. Reduction of Social Ills Project 180
i. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 180
ii. Objective 180
iii. Activities. 180
5. Research and Documentation Program 181
a. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 181
i. Objective 181
ii. Activities. 181
6. Advocacy Program 182
a. Program Description and Statement of the Problem 182
b. Objectives 183
c. Activities 183
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